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Run-On Sentences

Run-on sentences occur when writers try to combine more than one idea into a single sentence. They cause confusion because readers are not sure when one idea ends and the next one begins. Read our entry and test your knowledge with our quiz!

In 1937, Kate Turabian composed the first edition of A Manual for Writers of Research Papers and Dissertations. She designed the book to be a student-friendly alternative to the weightier Chicago Manual of Style. If your instructors ask you to use Chicago or Turabian style, they are referring to this book. The below guide is not intended to be a replacement for that book; we recommend purchasing A Manual for Writers, 7th Edition. However, we hope that this guide will help you quickly find the answers to your questions about citing sources in the Reference List style. Numbers written in parentheses will refer to sections and pages in A Manual for Writers, so you can read more in the original source. In all cases, defer to your instructor or committee if their preferences disagree with those of Chicago Style.


  1. Parenthetical Citations-Reference List Style
  2. Citing Books
  3. Citing Online Sources
  4. Citing Articles
  5. Citing Journals
  6. Citing Magazines
  7. Citing Newspapers
  8. Unpublished Interviews
  9. Sources in Visual and Performing Arts
  10. Secondary Sources

Choosing a Citation Style (15.3 , 135)

Chicago style offers two different styles for two different audiences. Notes-bibliography is for humanities and social science scholars, while parenthetical citations-reference list style is used for social, physical, and natural science scholars.

Parenthetical Citations--Reference List Style (15.3.2, 136-137)

Social Science and Hard Science scholars use a parenthetical citation style similar to APA. The parenthetical citation will include the last name of the author, the year, and the page number.

Waldo hid next to the barbershop sign (Handwick 1987, 10).

Then your source is again listed at the end of the paper in a reference list. The format is again slightly different from APA style.

Lastname, Firstname. Year. Title of the book (note lowercase). Publishing City: Publisher.

Citing Books (19.1, 229-247)

Books include the author’s name, the year of publication, the title of the book, and the publishing city and company. If you use just one chapter of a book, or if your book is part of a series, that information is also included.

Wilson, Carl. 2007. Let’s talk about love: A journey to the end of taste. New York: Continuum.  

References with three or more authors: use “and,” not &.

If your book title has more than one subtitle, use a colon to separate the title from the subtitle, and a semicolon to separate each subtitle from the next.

If you are citing one source from an edited collection, list that source’s author, year, and work title before listing the collection information as a whole.

Stacks, Luke. 2011. How to use Microsoft Word. In ThinkingStorm Resource Center, ed. Sean Hurley, 5-10. McLean, VA: Georgetown Learning Centers.

If you cite multiple sources from different authors from the same collection, you can have one reference entry for the entire collection, or write one master entry, and multiple smaller ones:

Stacks, Luke. 2011. How to use Microsoft Word. In Hurley 2011, 5-10.

If the source from the edited collection is all or part of a separate completed work, italicize the title.

Citing Online Sources (19.7, 263-265)

Web sites may not have all of the standard information, but include as much as you can:

Zuckerberg, Mark. “My book of faces.” Facebook. (accessed June 17, 2012).

Chicago asks for a different format for weblogs. Include the individual entries in the parenthetical citations:

(Tucker Stone, The Factual Opinion, entry posted July 12, 2012)

but include a general listing for the blog as a whole in the references:

The Factual Opinion. (accessed July 12, 2012)

When there is no page number for an online citation, use “under [subheading or descriptive locator]”

Citing Articles

Journal Articles (19.2, 247-251)

Journal article references must include the author, the article title, the journal title, the issue information, and the page numbers. Journals may mark the publication date a few ways: year, month, season, etc. Include what is given, in separate spots. The year comes after the author, just as in books. If there is a month or season listed, you will include this information in parentheses after the issue number of the journal.

von Trapp, Maria. 2011. Bright copper kettles and warm woolen mittens. Journal of Favorite Things 100, no. 3 (July): 20-40.

Note that while the article title is written in sentence-style capitalization, the journal title is not.

A journal normally includes both a volume number and an issue number. The volume number is in roman type and directly follows the title. The issue number is separated from the volume number by a comma and the word “no.” When the journal lists only an issue number, place a comma between the journal title and the issue number:

Watson, John. 1892. The case of the missing volume. The Journal of Observation and Deduction, no. 3: 32-46.

Magazine Articles (19.3, 251-252)

Magazines are treated similarly to journal articles, but there are some important differences.

Simon, Paul. 1977. Fifty ways to leave your lover. Glamour, May 3.

The specific date information comes after the magazine title, separated by just a comma. The page numbers do not have to be included, because magazines often overlap article pages with other articles and advertisements.  Use specific page numbers in your parenthetical citation, though.

Newspaper Articles (19.4, 252-254)

Newspapers are similar to magazines. Authors are followed by the year, the article title, the paper title, and the date. Page numbers are not included.

Lane, Lois. 1939. It’s a bird, it’s a plane—it’s Superman! The Daily Planet. May 10.

There are a number of different article types in newspapers. IF you are citing a regular column, include the column name between the article title and the paper title. If the article is unsigned, use the paper name in the author’s place. Identify Letters to the Editor as such.

Unpublished Interviews (19.6.3., 261)

Unlike other formats, Reference List style requires a reference for interviews.

Bell, Stringer. 2004. Interview by Jimmy McNulty, Baltimore, MD. April 27

Sources in the Visual and Performing Arts (19.8, 265-270)

Most of these should only be listed in your citations, not the references, unless working in a visual or performing arts class.

Secondary Sources (one source quoted in another) (19.10, 280)

In general, these are frowned upon. Look up the original source to establish context. However, if the original source cannot be located, give the full citation for the source, and then write “quoted in” the source you did have access to.

Biskind, Peter. 1999. Easy riders, raging bulls. New York: Simon & Schuster. Quoted in Zinoman, Jason. 2011. Shock value: How a few eccentric outsiders gave us nightmares, conquered Hollywood, and invented modern horror. New York: Penguin Press.